Klausul-klausul berbahaya : Non-Invalidation Clause, Breach of Warranty and Avoidance of Terms

Pencantuman klausul Non-Invalidation Clause, Breach of Warranty Clause telah membawa implikasi serius atas klaim pada suatu polis

Warranty: – apa yang dimaksud dengan Warranty?

MIA 1906:

Nature of warranty

(1)A warranty, in the following sections relating to warranties, means a promissory warranty, that is to say, a warranty by which the assured undertakes that some particular thing shall or shall not be done, or that some condition shall be fulfilled, or whereby he affirms or negatives the existence of a particular state of facts.

(2)A warranty may be express or implied.

(3)A warranty, as above defined, is a condition which must be exactly complied with, whether it be material to the risk or not. If it be not so complied with, then, subject to any express provision in the policy, the insurer is discharged from liability as from the date of the breach of warranty, but without prejudice to any liability incurred by him before that date.

Apakah setiap pelanggaran atas suatu Warranty akan mengakibatkan batalnya perjanjian? MIA 1906 menyatakan demikian, terlepas suatu pelanggaran adalah materiil atau tidak, berhubungan dengan kerugian yang terjadi atau tidak maka Penanggung (Perusahaan Asuransi) terbebas dari tanggung jawab untuk membayar ganti rugi.

Tidakkah hal tersebut sangat merugikan Tertanggung (Pemegang polis)? Maka seharusnya hanya klaim atau kerugian yang seluruhnya atau sebagiannya adalah akibat dari atau paling tidak ada kaitannya dengan pelanggaran “warranty” tersebut yang membatalkan perjanjian. Dengan kata lain bahwa kerugian atau kerusakan yang tidak ada hubungannya dengan pelanggaran “warranty” yang terjadi (baik seluruhnya atau sebagiannya) tetap dijamin.  

Maka supaya fair, disarankan untuk menyempurnakan klausul warranty menjadi sbb:

“Any warranty shall from the time it is applied continue to be in force during the whole currency of this policy.  Failure to comply with any Warranty shall invalidate any claim for loss destruction damage or liability which is wholly or partly due to or affected by such failure to comply.”

Atau dalam Policy Conditions sering kali terdapat ketentuan sbb:

“This Policy shall be avoidable in the event of misrepresentation misdescription or non-disclosure in any material particular.”

Hanya pelanggaran yang menyangkut hal-hal yang materiil (material facts) yang dapat membatalkan perjanjian atau menyebabkan klaim di tolak.

Bagaimana dengan aplikasi pencantuman klausul-klausul Non-Invalidation Clause, Breach of Warranty Clause?

Non-Invalidation Clause

This insurance is not invalidated by any change of occupancy or increase of risk taking place in the insured’s premises without the knowledge of the insured provided that they shall immediately upon the same coming to their knowledge give notice hereof to the insured and pay any additional premium required.

Breach of Warranty Clause

This insurance shall not be affected and/or invalidated by any act on neglect, misdescription and/or misrepresentation, breach in condition and/or warranty nor by change in the title or ownership of the property, provided the owner shall notify the Insurer the happening of such acts as soon as it comes to his knowledge and shall on reasonable demand pay the additional charges for any increase or hazard created.

No Control Clause

This insurance shall not be affected by failure of the Insured to comply with any provisions of this policy in any portion of the location over which the Insured has no control.

Pencantuman klausul Non-Invalidation Clause, Breach of Warranty Clause telah membawa implikasi serius atas klaim pada suatu polis

Pengadilan harus memutuskan apakah Tertanggung sudah mengetahui (Knew) adanya pelanggaran atau peningkatan risiko tersebut sebelum terjadinya kerugian ataukah hal itu terjadi diluar pengetahuan atau kuasa Tertanggung.

The Court had to decide whether The Insured was in breach of warranty and if so whether it knew of the breach and/or it was beyond their control.

Jika semua terjadi diluar pengetahuan atau kuasa Tertanggung, maka klaim harus dibayar.

Should you have any inquiry please give me a call

Kind regards, Imam MUSJAB

Email : imam.musjab@qbe.co.id or imusjab@gmail.com

Tel +628128079130


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